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Current revision ID: 12033

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Image:Roehl-Jansen Disposition.pdf

General description

Name: Disposition
Submitted by: LudgerJansen
Also Known As: Non-propositional Disposition
Intent: This pattern allow the representation of non-probabilistic dispositions with unique triggering and realization process types.

Upper Ontology, Biology, General

Competency Questions:
  • What is the triggering process for a given disposition? (e.g.
  • a dose of penicilin can unfold its antibiotic disposition when being swallowed)

What is the realization of a given disposition? (e.g.

  • developing a fever
  • rash)
Solution description: Relations are being defined between dispositions, their realizations processes and their triggering processes. The pattern is easily compatible with many top-level ontologies. In this description, we use classes from BFO and BioTop.

References: - Roehl/Jansen: "Representing Dispositions", Journal of Biomedical Semantics 2011, 2(Suppl 4):S4 (9 August 2011). - BioTop,

Reusable OWL Building Block: Roehl-jansen_disposition-pattern.owl (0)
Known Uses:
Web References:
Other References:
Examples (OWL files):
Extracted From:
Reengineered From:
Has Components:
Specialization Of:
Related CPs:


The Disposition Content OP locally defines the following ontology elements:

Additional information

Bearer (owl:Class): BFO: independent continuant, BioTop: material object

Trigger (owl:Class): BFO: process; Biotop: process

Disposition (owl:Class): BFO (dependent continuant: realizable:) disposition; Biotop: disposition

Realization (owl:Class): BFO: process; Biotop: process

hasDisposition (owl:ObjectProperty): This relation is a subrelation of bearerOf which expresses the relation of an instance of an independent continuant to an instance of a dependent continuant, that is a quality or a disposition. hasDisposition expresses that certain types of things have a certain disposition essentially. All instances will have instances of the disposition type inhering in them, e.g. all aspirin pills have the disposition to relieve pain.

inheresIn (owl:ObjectProperty): Expresses the relation between a disposition and its bearer. Even if particular dispositions are of the same type, their bearers do not have to be of the same type. Tablets of quite different types, like aspirins and paracetamols, can be bearers of instances the same disposition type to relieve pain e.g. aspirin as well as paracetamol. If all instances of a disposition have bearers of the same type, we can represent this by means of the inheres_in relation: D inheres_in B := For all x, if x instance_of D, then there is some y such that: y instance_of B and x inheres_in y.

hasTriggerR (owl:ObjectProperty): relation between the realization process and the triggering process (dropping of the glass and its breaking) R has_triggerR T := For all x, if x instance_of Rm then there is some y, such that y instance_of T and x has_triggerR y.

has_triggerD (owl:ObjectProperty)*: relation that holds between the disposition and the triggering process (fragility of the glass and its breaking) D has_triggerD T := For all x, if x instance_of D, then there is some y, such that if x has_triggerD y, then y instance_of T.

hasRealization (owl:ObjectProperty): This relation connects a disposition instance with any process instance which is its realization. A type of process R is the realization type of a disposition type D if and only if any instance of D is realized, then the realization is of type R; i.e. D has_realization R := For all x, if x instance_of D, then necessarily for all y: if x has_realization y, then y instance_of R.


Scenarios about Disposition

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Reviews about Disposition

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Modeling issues about Disposition

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