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Current revision ID: 13288

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General description

Name: Digital Video
Submitted by: PanagiotisMitzias, MarinaRiga, EfstratiosKontopoulos
Also Known As:
Intent: The pattern intends to model digital video files, their components and other associated entities, such as codecs and containers. This pattern has been developed by MKLab at CERTH/ITI for the PERICLES FP7 project.


Competency Questions:
  • What does a digital video file consist of? A digital video file usually consists of one or more streams. These streams are compressed using codecs (coder-decoder) and wrapped into a container.
  • What types of streams exist in a video file? Video streams audio streams and subtitle streams. A video file has at least one video stream and may also have any number and any type of other streams.
  • What types of codecs exist? Video and audio codecs.
Solution description: The pattern’s main entity is a digital video file (DigitalVideo). Appropriate object properties connect the video file with codecs, streams, containers, etc. Additionally, the model includes the most significant descriptors for all the previous notions, such as bitrate, aspect ratio, compression type, etc.
Reusable OWL Building Block: (992)
Consequences: The design pattern is expected to facilitate the creation of digital video domain ontologies that will be exploited in the field of digital preservation. A well-established, comprehensible pattern will prove to be advantageous.
  • The digital video is wrapped by an AVI container.
  • The digital video has duration 22 minutes.
  • The video stream is processed by the QuickTime codec.
  • The audio stream has bitrate 256 kbit/s.
Known Uses:
Web References:
Other References:
Examples (OWL files):
Extracted From:
Reengineered From:
Has Components:
Specialization Of:
Related CPs:


The DigitalVideo Content OP locally defines the following ontology elements:

Class DigitalVideo (owl:Class) A digital video file.
DigitalVideo page
Class Codec (owl:Class) A codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal.
Codec page
Class AudioCodec (owl:Class) An audio codec is a device or computer program capable of coding or decoding a digital data stream of audio. E.g. MP3
AudioCodec page
Class VideoCodec (owl:Class) A video codec is an electronic circuit or software that compresses or decompresses digital video, thus converting raw (uncompressed) digital video to a compressed format or vice-versa. E.g. QuickTime H.264 (Apple's implementation for H.264/MPEG-4 AVC coding format)
VideoCodec page
Class Stream (owl:Class) A (data) stream is a sequence of digitally encoded coherent signals (packets of data or data packets) used to transmit or receive information that is in the process of being transmitted. The term stream is used here to define raw, uncompressed content (video or audio) prior to being encoded into a wrapper or after being decoded from a wrapper.
Stream page
Class AudioStream (owl:Class) An audio stream is a stream where the carried data is audio content.
AudioStream page
Class VideoStream (owl:Class) A video stream is a stream where the carried data is video content.
VideoStream page
Class SubtitleStream (owl:Class) A subtitle stream is a stream where the carried data is subtitle content for a video.
SubtitleStream page
Class Container (owl:Class) A container or wrapper format is a metafile format whose specification describes how different elements of data and metadata coexist in a computer file. E.g. Matroska (MKV), MP4, etc.
Container page
Class Descriptor (owl:Class) Descriptors are the various elements describing a digital video, a container, a stream or a codec.
Descriptor page
Class AnalogBroadcastStandard (owl:Class) The video color encoding system, if the video originates from analog television broadcasts. E.g. NTSC, PAL, etc.
AnalogBroadcastStandard page
Class AspectRatio (owl:Class) The aspect ratio of an image describes the proportional relationship between its width and its height. It is commonly expressed as two numbers separated by a colon, as in 16:9. E.g. 16:9, 4:3, etc.
AspectRatio page
Class Bit Rate (owl:Class) The bitrate is the data rate for a video or audio file. Video and audio data rates are given in bits per second. E.g. 2 MBits/s
BitRate page
Class ChromaFormat (owl:Class) The chroma subsampling type. Chroma subsampling is the practice of encoding images by implementing less resolution for chroma information than for luma information, taking advantage of the human visual system's lower acuity for color differences than for luminance. E.g. 4:2:0
ChromaFormat page
Class CodingStandard (owl:Class) Also known as coding format or compression format. E.g. H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
CodingStandard page
Class ColourSpaceType (owl:Class) A color space is a specific organization of colors. It allows for reproducible representations of color, in both analog and digital representations. A color space may be arbitrary, with particular colors assigned to a set of physical color swatches and corresponding assigned names or numbers. E.g. YUV, RGB, etc.
ClourSpaceType page
Class CompressionType (owl:Class) The type of video compression. E.g. lossy, lossless or uncompressed
CompressionType page
Class EmbeddingType (owl:Class) The type of embedment used to attach a subtitle stream to a video. E.g. hard, prerendered, soft, etc.
EmbeddingType page
Class FrameRate (owl:Class) Frame rate, also known as frame frequency, is the frequency (rate) at which an imaging device produces unique consecutive images called frames. The term applies equally well to film and video cameras, computer graphics, and motion capture systems. Frame rate is most often expressed in frames per second (FPS) and is also expressed in progressive scan monitors as hertz (Hz). E.g. 60 FPS
FrameRate page
Class FrameSize (owl:Class) The dimensions of a video's frame. E.g. 1920 x 1080
FrameSize page
Class PlaybackDuration (owl:Class) The duration of a video, video stream or audio stream. E.g. 22 minutes
PlaybackDuration page
Class RangeType (owl:Class) The type of range a video is created for. E.g. broadcast range or full range
RangeType page
Class SampleRate (owl:Class) The audio sample rate is the number of samples of audio carried per second, measured in Hz or kHz (one kHz being 1 000 Hz). For example, 44 100 samples per second can be expressed as either 44 100 Hz, or 44.1 kHz.

The video sample rate of a digital video format determines how often the light intensity of each video line is sampled.

E.g. 96 kHz, 74.25MHz, etc.
SampleRate page
Class ScanType (owl:Class) Progressive or interlaced scan.
ScanType page
Class SetOfStandards (owl:Class) Sets of standards standardize the format of a video stream. E.g. BT.601 or BT.709
SetOfStandards page
Class E.g. SubRip, SubViewer, etc. (owl:Class) The file format of subtitles.
SubtitleTextFormat page
Class VideoCodecLevel (owl:Class) A video codec level is a specified set of constraints that indicate a degree of required decoder performance for a profile. E.g. 4
VideoCodecLevel page
Class VideoCodecProfile (owl:Class) The video codec profile is a set of capabilities and constraints apllied in the encoder. It allows the decoder to recognize the requirements to decode a specific stream. E.g. baseline profile, extended profile, main profile, high profile, etc.
VideoCodecProfile page
Class VideoQualityMeasurement (owl:Class) Measurement carried out according to the video quality metric.
VideoQualityMeasurement page
Class VideoQualityMetric (owl:Class) Process or software used to measure the quality of a video. E.g. VQM
VideoQualityMetric page
Class YUVSampleRange (owl:Class) YUV Sample Range E.g. 16-235
YUVSampleRange page
ObjectProperty hasBitRate (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates an audio or video stream with a bit rate.
hasBitRate page
ObjectProperty wrappedBy (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a digital video file with a container type.
wrappedBy page
ObjectProperty hasStream (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a digital video with a stream.
hasStream page
ObjectProperty hasAudioStream (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a digital video with an audio stream.
hasAudioStream page
ObjectProperty hasVideoStream (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a digital video with a video stream.
hasVideoStream page
ObjectProperty hasSubtitleStream (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a digital video with a subtitle stream.
hasSubtitleStream page
ObjectProperty hasCodingStandard (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video or audio stream with a coding standard.
hasCodingStandard page
ObjectProperty hasRangeType (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video stream with a range type.
hasRangeType page
ObjectProperty hasVideoQualityMeasurement (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video stream with a video quality measurement.
hasVideoQualityMeasurement page
ObjectProperty hasChromaFormat (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video stream with a chroma format.
hasChromaFormat page
ObjectProperty hasEmbeddingType (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a subtitle stream with an embedding type.
hasEmbeddingType page
ObjectProperty hasAspectRatio (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video stream with an aspect ratio.
hasAspectRatio page
ObjectProperty hasSubtitleTextFormat (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a subtitle stream with a subtitle text format.
hasSubtitleTextFormat page
ObjectProperty hasVideoQualityMetric (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video stream with a video quality metric.
hasVideoQualityMetric page
ObjectProperty hasCompressionType (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video or audio codec with a compression type.
hasCompressionType page
ObjectProperty hasScanType (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video stream with a scan type.
hasScanType page
ObjectProperty hasVideoCodecProfile (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video codec with a video codec profile.
hasVideoCodecProfile page
ObjectProperty hasColourSpaceType (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video stream with a colour space type.
hasColourSpaceType page
ObjectProperty hasFrameSize (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video stream with a frame size.
hasFrameSize page
ObjectProperty hasSetOfStandards (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video stream with a set of standards.
hasSetOfStandards page
ObjectProperty processedBy (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a stream with a codec.
processedBy page
ObjectProperty hasAnalogBroadcastStandard (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a digital video with an analog broadcast standard.
hasAnalogBroadcastStandard page
ObjectProperty hasVideoCodecLevel (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video codec with a video codec level.
hasVideoCodecLevel page
ObjectProperty hasFrameRate (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video stream with a frame rate.
hasFrameRate page
ObjectProperty hasPlaybackDuration (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a digital video, a video stream or an audio stream with a playback duration.
hasPlaybackDuration page
ObjectProperty hasYUVSampleRange (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video stream with a YUV sample range.
hasYUVSampleRange page
ObjectProperty hasSampleRate (owl:ObjectProperty) Associates a video stream or audio stream with a sample rate.
hasSampleRate page

Additional information


Scenarios about DigitalVideo

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Reviews about DigitalVideo

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