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|Name:||DOLCE+DnS Ultralite (DUL)|
|Description:|| The DOLCE+DnS Ultralite ontology.
It is a simplification and an improvement of some parts of DOLCE Lite-Plus library (cf. http://dolce.semanticweb.org), and Descriptions and Situations ontology (cf. http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/wiki/Ontology:DnS)
|Purpose:||To provide a set of upper level concepts that can be the basis for easier interoperability among many middle and lower level ontologies.|
|Justification||DOLCE makes a variety of important distinctions that are useful for upper ontologies. It was developed in a principled way using the OntoClean methodology to help ensure correct and consistent distinctions.|
|Recommended by:||Michael Uschold|
|Competency Questions:||What are the basic conceptual distinctions for designing an ontology? What participates in what event? What is the localization of what? What is part of what? What follows what? What is expressed by what? What are the members of what? What is this about? What is the attribute of what? What value has this attribute? What realizes that information? What overlaps/is near to what? What concept is specialized by what? What concept classifies what entity? What are the entities in the setting of that situation? What description is satisfied by what situation?|
|Other references:||An almost equivalent set of competency questions can be answered by means of the design patterns collected in ontologydesignpatterns.org, which have been extracted from DOLCE+DnS Ultralite|
The DOLCE+DnS Ultralite ontology. It is a simplification of some parts of the DOLCE Lite-Plus library (cf. http://www.loa-cnr.it/ontologies/DLP397.owl). Main aspects in which DOLCE+DnS Ultralite departs from DOLCE Lite-Plus are the following:
- The names of classes and relations have been made more intuitive - The DnS-related part is closer to the newer 'constructive DnS' ontology (http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/ont/cdns/cDnS.owl). - Temporal and spatial relations are simplified - Axiomatization makes use of simpler constructs than DOLCE Lite-Plus - The architecture of the ontology is pattern-based, which means that DOLCE+DnS Ultralite is also available in modules, called 'content ontology design patterns', which can be applied independently in the design of domain ontologies (cf. http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org). If many modules are needes in a same ontology project, is anyway useful to use this integrated version.
The final result is a lightweight, easy-to-apply foundational ontology for modeling either physical or social contexts. Several extensions of DOLCE+DnS Ultralite are being designed; see for example the extensions for information objects: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/ont/dul/IOLite.owl, for systems: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/ont/dul/SystemsLite.owl, for plans: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/ont/dul/PlansLite.owl, for the legal domain: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/ont/dul/CoreLegal.owl, for the lexical and semiotic domains: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/ont/lmm/LMM_L1.owl; etc.
- Technical Report: "A Comparison of Upper Ontologies"