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Current revision ID: 10170

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General description

Name: SimpleOrAggregated
Submitted by: MariaPoveda, MariCarmenDeFigueroa
Also Known As:
Intent: The goal of this pattern is to represent objects that can be simple or aggregated (that is, several objects gathered in another object acting as a whole).

The main difference between the aggregation relation and other mereological relationships (such as part-of or componency) is that the aggregated object and its aggregated members should belong to the same concept. For example, a turbine is part of an engine, whereas an aggregated provider is formed by providers.


Parts and Collections

Competency Questions:
  • What elements are aggregated members of this object?
  • What is this object aggregated member of?
Solution description: The class "ObjectByCardinality" has been created to classify simple and aggregated objects into its subclasses "SimpleObject" and "AggregatedObject", respectively. These subclasses are disjoint among them.

The aggregation relationship between objects means that objects can be composed by other objects. This relationship is represented by the transtive property "hasAggregatedMember" and its inverse "isAggregatedMemberOf". These properties have as subproperties the non transitive properties "hasDirectAggregatedMember" and its inverse "isDirectAggregatedMemberOf", respectively. By means of this structure of properties, we provide a mechanism (a) to represent transitive aggregation relationships (that is, if A has B as aggregated member and B has C as aggregated member then A has C as aggregated member) and (b) to link each aggregated member just to the next level (that is, A has B as direct aggregated member).

Finally, the class "AggregatedObject" has been defined as equivalent to those things that have some values for the property "hasAggregatedMember". This modelling allows the automatic classification of aggregated objects in this class when a reasoner is applied.

Reusable OWL Building Block: (1007)
Consequences: This Content OP allows designers to represent both simple individuals of a given concept (that is, an individual that is made up of itself) and aggregated individuals of a given concept (that is, an individual that is made up of several individuals of the same concept).

In summary, this pattern allows to represent both simple objects and aggregated objects and their members. In addition, this pattern can be used to detect the following contradictory situation by means of applying a reasoner: 'to instantiate the relationship "hasAggregatedMember" for an Object that belongs to "SimpleObject"'. This situation represents a consistency error and it is detected when a resoner is applied due to the following modelling decisions included in the pattern: (a) "AggregatedObject" class represents the "hasAggregatedMember" domain and (b) "AggregatedObject" is disjoint with "SimpleObject".

Scenarios: A service provider can be simple or be an aggregate of a set of service providers. A context source can be simple or be an aggregate of a set of context sources. A computing or storage resource can be simple or be an aggregate of a set of computing or storage resources.
Known Uses:
Web References:
Other References:
Examples (OWL files):
Extracted From:
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Has Components:
Specialization Of:
Related CPs:


The SimpleOrAggregated Content OP locally defines the following ontology elements:

ObjectProperty hasAggregatedMember (owl:ObjectProperty)
hasAggregatedMember page
ObjectProperty isAggregatedMemberOf (owl:ObjectProperty)
isAggregatedMemberOf page
Class AggregatedObject (owl:Class) An object that is an aggregation of two or more objects.

Un objeto resultante de la agregación de dos o más objetos.

AggregatedObject page
Class Object (owl:Class) Any physical, social, or mental object, or a substance.

Cualquier objeto físico, social o mental o sustancia.

Object page
Class ObjectByCardinality (owl:Class)
ObjectByCardinality page
Class SimpleObject (owl:Class) A simple object, that is, an object that has no aggregated objects.

Un objeto simple, es decir, un objeto que no tiene objetos agregados.

SimpleObject page

Additional information


Scenarios about SimpleOrAggregated
  • Modelling simple and aggregated service providers within the mIO! ontology network. Service providers are also organized by types. >>>
  • Modelling simple and aggregated context sources within the mIO! ontology network. >>>
  • Modelling simple and aggregated resources. These resources are also organized by types, specifically, they can be computing or storage resources. >>>


Reviews about SimpleOrAggregated
Review article Posted on About revision (current is 10170)
CatherineRoussey about SimpleOrAggregated 245545010 September 2010 1006410,064
GerdGroener about SimpleOrAggregated 245545010 September 2010 1009710,097
VojtechSvatek about SimpleOrAggregated 245545616 September 2010 1009710,097

This revision (revision ID 10170) takes in account the reviews: none

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