Submissions:Xsd:sequence embedding

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Current revision ID: 9710

General information

Name Structural XML/DTD embedding to ontological meronymy
Problem This pattern addresses the re-engineering of certain embedded structures within XSD and DTD representations into a meronymic pattern.

Non-Ontological Resource

Description *For a description of XSD see:

The pattern covers the cases where an xsd:element is embedded into an xsd:sequence, which is in its turn embedded by an xsd:element.

  • The graphical representation only illustrates the XSD case.
  • The DTD case is described in the example section.
Graphical Representation




Description The ontology comprising the pattern representing the relevant XSD or DTD fragment.
Graphical Representation




Description The re-engineering process involves a number of steps:
  • The creation of embedding class and embedded class(es)
  • The creation of an instance of the hasPart object property from the DOLCE Ultra Light ontology ( with embedding class as domain and embedded class(es) as range.
Graphical Representation



Scenario example

Description The application scenario is in the area of the modelling of lexical translational equivalence according to the format of the XLIFF and TMX standards for translation memory.

Example of a Non-Ontological Resource

Description XLIFF

The purpose of the OASIS XLIFF standard ( is to define and promote, through extensible XML vocabularies, the adoption of a specification for the interchange of localizable software and document based objects and related metadata. XLIFF should be able to mark-up and capture localization information and interoperate with different processes and phases without loss of information. It should fulfill specific requirements of being tool-neutral. It should support the localization related aspects of internationalization and entire localization process. It also needs to support common software and content data formats. This should also provide an extensibility mechanism to allow the development of tools compatible with an implementer’s proprietary data formats and workflow requirements.

  • 1. TransUnit: contains (a set of) translational equivalences
  • 2. Source: the source of the translation pair
  • 3. SegSource: the translatable text, divided into segments
  • 4. Mrk: Each segment is marked by means of the <Mrk> element with attribute “mType” set to the value "seg".
  • 5. Target: the target of the translation pair
  • 6. Alt-Trans: possible translations as Target instances
  • 7. Equiv-trans: Indicates if the target language translation is a direct equivalent of the source text.

DTD embedding is exemplified (but not illustrated on this page) by Translation Memory eXchange standard (TMX) ( TMX is the vendor-neutral open XML standard for the exchange of Translation Memory data created by Computer Aided Translation and localization tools. The purpose of TMX is to allow easier exchange of translation memory data between tools and/or translation vendors with little or no loss of critical data during the process. In existence since 1998, TMX is a certifiable standard format. TMX is developed and maintained by OSCAR (Open Standards for Container/Content Allowing Re-use), a LISA (Localization Industry Standards Association) Special Interest Group. The following structure from TMX illustrates the same pattern conversion

  <!ELEMENT tu     (tuv+) >

This describes that a translation unit (tu) consists of one or more translation unit variants (tuv). A translationUnit contains the data for a given translation unit. A TranslationUnitVariant specifies text in a given language. A more detailed description of TMX can be found in NeOn deliverable D2.4.3: Multilingual and Localization Support for Ontologies (

Graphical Representation



Web Reference

Ontology example

Description The xsd:sequence embedding pattern as the resulting ontology pattern.
Graphical Representation



Web Reference

Process example

Description The ontological pattern re-engineered from the XLIFF fragment.
Graphical Representation




SubmittedBy Wim Peters
Author Wim Peters
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Scenarios about Xsd:sequence embedding

No scenario is added to this Content OP.


Reviews about Xsd:sequence embedding
Review article Posted on About revision (current is 9710)
MathieuDAquin about Xsd:sequence embedding 24550838 September 2009 56285,628
EnricoDaga about Xsd:sequence embedding 24550838 September 2009 57235,723
BorisVillazón-Terrazas about Xsd:sequence embedding 24550838 September 2009 57235,723

This revision (revision ID 9710) takes in account the reviews: none

Other info at evaluation tab

Modeling issues

Modeling issues about Xsd:sequence embedding

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